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Page de résumé pour ULgetd-03082010-174745

Auteur : Croisier, Huguette
E-mail de l'auteur : hcroisier@alumni.ulg.ac.be
URN : ULgetd-03082010-174745
Langue : Anglais/English
Titre : Continuation and bifurcation analyses of a periodically forced slow-fast system
Intitulé du diplôme : Doctorat en sciences
Département : FS - Département d'astrophysique, géophysique et océanographie
Jury :
Nom : Titre :
Desaive, T. Membre du jury/Committee Member
Dorbolo, S. Membre du jury/Committee Member
Dupont, G. Membre du jury/Committee Member
Guevara, M.R. Membre du jury/Committee Member
Kohl, P. Membre du jury/Committee Member
Sepulchre, R. Membre du jury/Committee Member
Gérard, P. Président du jury/Committee Chair
Dauby, P.C. Promoteur/Director
Mots-clés :
  • excitability and relaxation oscillations
  • periodic forcing
  • continuation
  • phase-resetting
  • cardiac electrical activity
Date de soutenance : 2009-04-28
Type d'accès : Public/Internet
Résumé :

This thesis consists in the study of a periodically forced slow-fast system in both its excitable and oscillatory regimes. The slow-fast system under consideration is the FitzHugh-Nagumo model, and the periodic forcing consists of a train of Gaussian-shaped pulses, the width of which is much shorter than the action potential duration. This system is a qualitative model for both an excitable cell and a spontaneously beating cell submitted to periodic electrical stimulation. Such a configuration has often been studied in cardiac electrophysiology, due to the fact that it constitutes a simplified model of the situation of a cardiac cell in the intact heart, and might therefore contribute to the understanding of cardiac arrhythmias. Using continuation methods (AUTO software), we compute periodic-solution branches for the periodically forced system, taking the stimulation period as bifurcation parameter. We then study the evolution of the resulting bifurcation diagram as the stimulation amplitude is raised. In both the excitable and the oscillatory regimes, we find that a critical amplitude of stimulation exists below which the behaviour of the system is “trivial”: in the excitable case, the bifurcation diagram is restricted to a stable subthreshold period-1 branch, and in the oscillatory case, all the stable periodic solutions belong to isolated loops (i.e., to distinct closed solution branches). Due to the slow-fast nature of the system, the changes that take place in the

bifurcation diagram as the critical amplitude is crossed are drastic, while the way the bifurcation diagram re-simplifies above some second amplitude is much more gentle. In the oscillatory case, we show that the critical amplitude is also the amplitude at which the topology of phase-resetting changes type. We explain the origin of this coincidence by considering a one-dimensional discrete map of the circle derived from the phase-resetting curve of the oscillator (“the phase-resetting map”), map which constitutes a good approximation of the original differential equations under certain conditions. We show that the bifurcation diagram of any such circle map, where the bifurcation parameter appears only in an additive fashion, is always characterized by the period-1 solutions belonging to isolated loops when the topological degree of the map is one, while these period-1 solutions belong to a unique branch when the topological degree of the map is zero.

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